SPM and TERS measurements on graphs

Special measurement methods in nanotechnology SPM measurements on graphene Studies on graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and functionalized carbons currently play a major role and were the subject of the last Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to A. Geim and K. Novoselov. An important tool for examining such substances is a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM), as manufactured by Nanonics and [...]

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PL mapper

Characterization of thin film solar cells Together with the IRDEP (Institute of Research and Development on Photovoltaic Energy), the company Photon etc. has developed a PL mapper for the characterization of thin film solar cells. Photoluminescence processes are often used to detect defects in a layer system at an early stage, such as LEDs, OFETs or solar cells. In these low-light processes, the hyperspectral imager can increase the efficiency and throughput

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P2 and P3 processing of CIGS

Fiber laser with adjustable pulse duration enables new ablation processes P2 and P3 in the production of CIGS photovoltaic modules When producing thin-film photovoltaic modules, coating processes and ablation processes, here the writing of lines, are carried out alternately on a glass plate. This is how the individual solar cells are created with the two electrodes at the top and bottom and the photovoltaic layer in the middle

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Process ultrasonic spectroscopy

Although specialty chemicals only account for 26% of the European chemical industry, they make a significant contribution to the overall European economy. This is largely due to the need for these substances in production in a wide variety of industrial sectors such as the construction, cosmetics, household, automotive and food industries. Titanium Dioxide Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a very widely used industrial

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Laser Stereolithography

Light can not only be used to measure, heat and remove material, it can also be used to create structures. The two most common processes are laser sintering or laser stereolithography, in which a 3D structure is created layer by layer. During sintering, powder is heated locally using a laser beam until it melts in a targeted manner. Macro laser stereolithography

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Tunable IR laser sources for near-field microscopy

The word “nano” is on everyone’s lips in many areas today. On the one hand, it provides a certain amount of information about a geometric size and on the other hand, this word refers to a new generation of particles that, due to their size, have special properties that the same substance no longer shows if it is slightly larger. Whether nanoparticles in colors,

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Materials analysis laboratory

Raman spectroscopy Two different Raman spectrometer systems are available for structural analysis of materials. On the one hand, a large laboratory system from Renishaw with three different laser excitation wavelengths (532nm, 632.8nm and 785nm), high transmission and high spectral resolution. On the other hand, a fiber-coupled compact Raman spectrometer (at 532nm excitation) for quick overview spectra. Laboratory Raman spectroscopy The Raman spectrometer from Renishaw is particularly characterized by its

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Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS)

CARS is a spectroscopy method that has been known for decades and has been used in particular to study combustion processes such as in engines and car engines. The CARS effect is a third-order nonlinear effect. Here, two laser beams (pump beam ωP and Stokes beam ωS) cross each other in a medium and the anti-Stoke beam ωaS is generated. This means that based on the Raman selection rules the

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polarization techniques

This application note briefly describes polarized light, retardation, and some of the tools used to manipulate the polarization state of light. Also included are descriptions of combinations of components that represent common light manipulation tools such as optical isolators, light attenuators, polarization rotators, and variable beam splitters. Light Polarization In classical physics, light of a single color is described by an electromagnetic field,

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From the light line to the laser fiber

Light conduction through optical fibers has now changed many areas of life enormously. Examples include telecommunications, process technology and spectroscopy, fiber optic sensors and medical diagnostics via catheters. Another important area is laser technology, where fiber lasers are gradually displacing other types of lasers. Examples of all of these applications can be found elsewhere in this journal. One

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